Background: African Americans and Latinos have the highest rates of food insecurity (FI) in the United States. However, little is known about how the relationship between FI and T2D may vary by gender and race/ethnicity. In this study, we examined whether the relationship between FI and T2D varied by race/ethnicity and gender. Methods: We analyzed data from low-income (<=200% federal poverty level) adults aged 18 or older participating in the 2009 and 2011 waves of the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) (N=27,798). Results: In white women, we observed a positive association between severe FI and T2D (adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval (CI)) = 1.6 (1.1, 2.5)), but no association between mild FI and T2D. In white men, we observed a positive association between mild FI and T2D (OR (CI) = 1.9 (1.2, 3.2)) but no association with severe FI. In Latinas, we observed a positive association between both mild FI (OR (CI) = 1.7 (1.3, 2.2)) and severe FI (OR (CI) = 1.8 (1.2, 2.6)) and T2D. In Latinos, we observed a positive association between severe FI and T2D (OR (CI) = 1.7 (1.1, 2.7)), but no association between mild FI and T2D. We did not observe any associations between FI and T2D in African-American women and men in this sample. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that food insecurity is associated with type 2 diabetes among Latinos and Whites, but not among African Americans. For African Americans, limited geographic access to food resulting from residential segregation, rather than food insecurity, may be a more significant driver of increased risk of diabetes. Future research should examine the extent to which local food availability may modify the effect of food insecurity on T2D across racially diverse populations.