Persistently high racial residential segregation predicts poor health, and the vast racial inequalities in neighborhood environment may play an important role in creating and maintaining racial disparities in health. However there is a dearth of translational social epidemiology evidence to inform policies that may promote health equity. This talk will focus on a social experiment of neighborhood relocation that occurred in the housing sector with the Moving to Opportunity ("MTO") for Fair Housing Demonstration Program. This experiment randomly assigned low-income families living in highly distressed public housing an offer to move to a lower-poverty neighborhood and subsidize rent, and followed up with them over the course of 15 years. I will illustrate some findings to date on the broad range of neighborhood changes that participating families experienced, including from a mosaic of datasets we collected and linked to the MTO data. I will describe the health effects of this housing policy, including how some subgroups were more likely to benefit from the policy, and then I will present some of the mechanisms by which we believe the health effects emerged. This project is funded by several National Institutes of Health grants, and is an example of translational, policy-relevant social epidemiologic research. Because of its rigorous experimental design, this project provides strong evidence that housing and neighborhood context influences health. It also informs the mechanisms by which policies outside the health sector, namely housing mobility policy, may improve population health by addressing upstream determinants of health such as housing costs and place-based deprivation. Our results may inform the next generation of housing policies to ensure that more low income families benefit from affordable housing and rental assistance policies.